This department started operating in 1973 within the Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery of CHC “Dr Dragiša Mišović” as the Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation within the Clinic for Anesthesiology, Resuscitation and Pain Therapy CHC “Dragiša Mišović” managed by the director of the clinic, prof. Dr. Predrag Lalević. Upon the establishment of the Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery “Dedinje”, in 1985, the Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation had 6 medical doctors – specialists in anesthesiology and resuscitation with the head of the department Prim. Dr. Ilija Trifunović and 10 nurses and anesthetic medical technicians distributed in 4 operating theaters and about 34 nurses and intensive care medical technicians covering 15 beds. Soon after, in the early 1990s, intraoperative blood salvage and acute normovolemic hemodilution became a part of everyday practice, thus creating conditions for about 40% of cardiac surgery patients to avoid receiving allogeneic (donor’s) blood. A heart and liver transplantation program was introduced at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases “Dedinje” in 1995. The team of anesthesiologists, nurses and technicians in charge of anesthesia and intensive care unit at that point made a significant step forward in the field of contemporary transplant medicine, with successful heart and liver transplants as a part of the Institute’s Transplant Team and Medical Advisory Board, led by prof. dr Božin Radević and doc. Dr. Boško Radomir, Head of the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care. The following year, 1996, just six months after its introduction, a program of surgical left ventricle remodeling in case of dilated cardiomyopathy was mastered. This program improved and encouraged obtaining new knowledge and experience in the field of cardiac insufficiency. At the same time, the implementation of the surgical thoracic aorta reconstruction program was intensified, which improved the anesthesiological concept of modern anesthesia in deep hypothermic circulatory arrest as well as intensive care, by introducing high thoracic epidural anesthesia, continuous intraoperative blood salvage and acute normovolemic hemodilution, along with introducing combined epidural and general anesthesia (fast-track) into cardio-anesthesia for coronary artery bypass grafting, thanks to many years of experience of the anesthesiology team in applying the same concept in vascular anesthesia.